Penn State University CAD Study: Gamma Prime Fibrinogen significantly associated with coronary artery disease. Individuals in the upper 25th%ile showed 7x increased odds of CAD.(Lovely et al. Association of γA/γ’ Fibrinogen Levels and Coronary Artery Disease. Thrombosis and Haemostasis 2002; 88: 26-31)
Stockholm Coronary Artery Risk Factor Study: Gamma Prime Fibrinogen study showed elevated levels associated with early onset heart attacks before age 60. (Mannila et al. Elevated Plasma Fibrinogen γ’ Concentration Increases Risk of Myocardial Infarction: Effects of Genetic Variation in Fibrinogen Genes and Environmental Factors. Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 2007; 5: 766-73)
Framingham Heart Study: Gamma Prime Fibrinogen study with 3,400 individuals showed people in upper 25th %ile of γ’ fibrinogen and upper 25th %ile of total fibrinogen showed a 3x increased odds of heart attack. Validated the test for its linearity, precision, analytical specificity, lower limit of quantification, reference interval, reproducibility, sensitivity, and specificity.(Lovely et al. γ’ Fibrinogen: Evaluation of a New Assay for Study of Associations with Cardiovascular Disease. Clinical Chemistry 2010; 56: 781-8)
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